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Author Topic: Minlaw: Combating Online Falsehoods (aka Fake News)  (Read 13082 times)

Offline greentara

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Re: Minlaw: Combating Online Falsehoods (aka Fake News)
« Reply #15 on: November 29, 2019, 11:20:08 AM »
States Times Review told to correct Facebook post under fake news law, refuses to comply
Nov 28, 2019 | Prisca Ang

SINGAPORE - The person who runs the Facebook page of  website States Times Review was directed on Thursday (Nov 28) under the Republic's fake news law to correct false statements in a post on the page.

However, he has said that the site will not comply with the order.

States Times Review is blocked in Singapore and has content that, according to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) spread "outright fabrications".

This is the second time the Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act (Pofma) has been invoked, following its first use on Monday in relation to a separate Facebook post by opposition party member Brad Bowyer.

The Pofma Office said on Thursday that it was instructed by Home Affairs Minister K. Shanmugam to issue a correction direction to Mr Alex Tan Zhi Xiang regarding a post on the States Times Review Facebook page on Nov 23.

The post was about People's Action Party (PAP) member Rachel Ong and a Nussu-NUS Students United Facebook post.

MHA said in a statement that the States Times Review Facebook page was required to carry a correction notice stating that its article contains falsehoods.

The Nussu-NUS Students United Facebook page, which parodies the National University of Singapore Students' Union or Nussu, was accused earlier this month of misquoting Mr Shanmugam, who is also Law Minister, in a post it made.

The States Times Review Facebook post had cited a Nussu-NUS Students United post on Ms Ong's alleged religious affiliations and said that one person involved in the matter was arrested and another was being investigated by the police.

The MHA said these claims are false and baseless.

Mr Alex Tan, who runs States Times Review, is a 32-year-old Singaporean, who is not in Singapore. He is the editor of various websites including Temasek Review News and Singapore Herald. PHOTO: ST FILE

No one has been arrested or charged in relation to the spoof student group's post, the ministry said.

Referring to Facebook's action, the ministry added: "The Government did not request that Facebook take down the Nussu-NUS Students United post or disable the page. It was Facebook which removed the page on its own accord."

The ministry said the States Times Review article also made various other "scurrilous" allegations, including about Singapore's elections process.

Calling the allegations "absurd", it said: "Singapore's electoral system enjoys high public trust. Elections are held regularly and contested. The electoral system and its procedures are clearly spelt out in law, and apply to all political participants, regardless of affiliation."

The MHA added that during elections, there are equal opportunities for all political participants to observe and monitor the election process.

The ministry said that Mr Tan, who runs States Times Review, is a 32-year-old Singaporean, who is not in Singapore.

He is also the editor of various websites including Temasek Review News and Singapore Herald.

These websites have breached the Infocomm Media Development Authority's (IMDA's) Internet Code of Practice on the grounds of public interest and have been blocked by IMDA, said the ministry.

"This is not the first time that these websites, as well as States Times Review, have perpetuated outright fabrications, such as misrepresenting Singapore's position in foreign relations with other countries and casting aspersions on the integrity of public institutions," said the MHA.

At about 1.20pm on Thursday, the States Times Review Facebook page said in an update in the Nov 23 post that "the Singapore government claimed that no arrest was made" and that this was "contrary to the tip off we received".

Mr Tan also said earlier on the page at about 11.30am that he and States Times Review "will not comply with any order from a foreign government".

A Nov 13 Facebook post he made "contains clearly false statements of fact, and undermines public trust in the Government", the Ministry of Finance said.

In Monday’s case, Finance Minister Heng Swee Keat had instructed the Pofma Office to issue a correction direction, which required Mr Bowyer to put up in full a correction note along with his post, that still remained online. Mr Bowyer made the correction on the same day.

Pofma, which came into force on Oct 2, targets individuals and technology companies, giving ministers the power to order removal or corrections of online falsehoods, as well as the blocking of accounts or sites that spread untruths.

Those who disregard these orders or intentionally spread falsehoods against the public interest can be criminally sanctioned. Technology firms can be fined up to $1 million, and individuals jailed up to 10 years.

To assure observers concerned that the law could be used unjustly for political ends, government ministers have said that opinions, criticisms, satire or parody will not come under the law, with a falsehood strictly referring to a statement of fact that is either false or misleading.

A person who disagrees with a minister’s decision can have his appeal heard in the High Court as early as nine days after initiating a challenge to the minister, although the minister can decide whether to allow the appeal against his decision to reach the court.

The appeal will cost the defendant $200, with no charge for the first three days of court hearing.

Source: https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/fake-news-law-invoked-against-facebook-page-of-alternative-news-site-states-times-review





Misleading and false statements were made by the States Times Review

Corrections and clarifications regarding falsehoods posted by the States Times Review

1. The Facebook post by the States Times Review ("STR"), published on 23 Nov 2019, contains false statements of fact.

Falsehoods

No one has been arrested or charged arising from the NSU post

2. The STR refers to a Facebook post by "NUSSU – NUS Students United" ("NSU") which had misleadingly quoted Minister K Shanmugam as saying that a political candidate running for elections must resign from all executive positions that they hold in organisations with religious leanings.

3. The STR falsely asserts that:
  •     "The whistleblower who exposed the PAP candidate’s Christian affiliations has since been arrested, and fac[es] Police charges for 'fabricating fake news'"; and
  •     "The [NSU] page has since been taken down and the owner of the page is now under Police investigation after Law and Home Affairs Minister K Shanmugam ordered the arrest."

4. These claims are false and baseless. No one has been arrested or charged arising from the NSU post. The Government did not request that Facebook take down the NSU post or disable the page. It was Facebook which removed the page on its own accord. As reported by the Singapore media on 23 Nov 2019, Facebook did so as the NSU page violated authenticity policies, and the fake accounts linked to the page failed Facebook's community and authenticity guidelines.

Additional Clarifications

5. The STR also has made scurrilous accusations against the Elections Department, the Prime Minister, and the election process in Singapore.

6. Parliamentary elections in Singapore are governed by the Parliamentary Elections Act. The law provides for a clear and transparent framework which ensures the integrity of the elections. By way of example, there are equal opportunities for all political participants, regardless of party affiliation, to observe and monitor the election process. After the close of polls, the presiding officer is required to secure the ballot boxes and the Candidates or their agents may affix their own seals. Before vote counting even begins, Candidates and their counting agents are allowed to witness the opening of each ballot box and the taking out of the papers therein. Candidates and their counting agents can also be present during the counting of the votes and raise objections on the validity of any vote.

Source: https://www.gov.sg/factually/content/corrections-on-falsehoods-posted-by-states-times-review

Offline greentara

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Re: Minlaw: Combating Online Falsehoods (aka Fake News)
« Reply #16 on: January 23, 2020, 02:12:03 PM »
Singapore invokes online falsehoods law against Malaysian rights group's 'preposterous' claims on execution methods
22 Jan 2020

SINGAPORE: Claims by a Malaysian human rights group that Singapore carries out "brutal" executions are "untrue, baseless and preposterous", said the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), which on Wednesday (Jan 22) invoked the online falsehoods law against Lawyers for Liberty (LFL) and three parties for spreading the allegations.

Home Affairs Minister K Shanmugam has instructed the POFMA (Protection From Online Falsehoods And Manipulation Act) Office to issue a correction direction against LFL’s statement on its website, Kirsten Han’s Facebook post, an online article by The Online Citizen and a Facebook post by Yahoo Singapore, said MHA in a press release.

They will be required to carry a correction notice, stating that their posts or articles contain falsehoods.

"LFL has been publishing various falsehoods to seek attention in hopes of getting Malaysian prisoners, who have been convicted of drug trafficking and sentenced to death in Singapore, off the death penalty," said MHA.

"Regrettably, there are some individuals and groups in Singapore who are spreading LFL’s latest allegations," it added.

"ENTIRELY UNFOUNDED"

On Jan 16, LFL released a press statement alleging brutal execution methods at Singapore's Changi Prison.

In its statement, it alleged that prison officers were instructed to "pull the rope around the neck of the prisoner towards him" and "kick the back of the neck of the prisoner with great force in order to break it", whenever the rope broke during a hanging.

"LFL also made spurious allegations that prison officers were 'given special training to carry out the brutal execution method', that the Singapore Government approved of these 'unlawful methods', and suggested that specific measures were adopted to cover up these methods," said MHA.

"These allegations are entirely unfounded," it added.

ROPE HAS NEVER BROKEN BEFORE: MHA

The ministry said that no effort is spared to ensure that all executions in Singapore - which are done in the presence of the prison superintendent and a doctor - are carried out in strict compliance with the law.

Under the law, a coroner is also required to conduct an inquiry within 24 hours of an execution to ensure it was carried out duly and properly, said MHA.

"For the record, the rope used for judicial executions has never broken before, and prison officers certainly do not receive any 'special training to carry out the brutal execution method' as alleged," said MHA.

"Any acts such as those described in the LFL statement would have been thoroughly investigated and dealt with."

KIRSTEN HAN, THE ONLINE CITIZEN RESPOND

Ms Han confirmed that she received a correction direction from the POFMA Office on Wednesday morning and has until 8am on Thursday to comply with the direction.

"I'll be using the rest of the time given under the correction direction to decide how I should proceed," she said in a Facebook post.

The freelance journalist added that she had previously asked the Singapore Prison Service for their response to LFL's statement and other questions about executions in prison and their standard protocol, but received no reply.

The Online Citizen (TOC) said on Wednesday morning it has filed an application to Mr Shanmugam to cancel the correction direction.

"The minister has three days to consider the application before TOC can take the matter to the court," it wrote in a Facebook post.

Since POFMA came into force in October, correction directions have also been issued to Progress Singapore Party member Brad Bowyer, the States Times Review, the Singapore Democratic Party, and Singaporean lawyer Lim Tean.

Source: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/pofma-malaysia-lawyers-for-liberty-drugs-execution-falsehoods-12299384

Reference: https://www.gov.sg/article/factually-clarifications-on-falsehoods-posted-by-lawyers-for-liberty
« Last Edit: January 27, 2020, 05:26:32 PM by greentara »

Offline greentara

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Re: Minlaw: Combating Online Falsehoods (aka Fake News)
« Reply #17 on: January 27, 2020, 05:35:02 PM »


There was a false statement contained in a HardwareZone Forum post on the Wuhan coronavirus infection.

Falsehoods

At 5.50pm on 26 Jan 2020, a HardwareZone Forum post claimed that a 66 year old man died in Singapore from a newly identified virus that caused him to develop severe pneumonia.

As of 11pm on 26 Jan 2020, there have been no deaths among confirmed cases of the Wuhan coronavirus infection.

Additional Clarifications

We advise members of the public to not speculate and/or spread unfounded rumors. Please visit www.moh.gov.sg for updates on the Wuhan coronavirus situation.

Source: https://www.gov.sg/article/factually-clarifications-on-falsehoods-posted-on-hardware-zone-forum-post

Reference 1 (defunct): https://forums.hardwarezone.com.sg/eat-drink-man-woman-16/%5Bbreaking%5Dsingapore-reports-first-death-new-virus-6191328.html

Reference 2: "[Correction Notice] As of 26 Jan at 11pm: No deaths in Singapore from Wuhan Coronavirus": https://forums.hardwarezone.com.sg/announcement.php?f=16&a=1728

Reference 3: https://www.moh.gov.sg/2019-ncov-wuhan
« Last Edit: January 27, 2020, 06:08:14 PM by greentara »

Offline greentara

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Re: Minlaw: Combating Online Falsehoods (aka Fake News)
« Reply #18 on: January 28, 2020, 03:37:44 PM »
Fact-checking hoaxes and conspiracies about the coronavirus
By Daniel Funke on Friday, January 24th, 2020 at 5:45 p.m.

"Falsehoods about a new strain of the coronavirus spreading from China vary widely, from Facebook posts that take a patent out of context to conspiracy theories about Bill Gates. Many of the claims were shared by Facebook and Twitter users, and others were propagated on the fringe internet and notorious conspiracy websites. One falsehood was even shared by a 2020 U.S. Senate candidate.

The virus, known as the Wuhan coronavirus because of the central China city where it originated, has infected more than 900 people worldwide, and China has restricted travel within the country amid a rising death toll.

Misinformation about the coronavirus has particularly taken root in Facebook groups for anti-vaccine advocates and believers in QAnon, a broad, right-wing conspiracy theory.

Many of the posts about coronavirus were flagged as part of Facebook’s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our partnership with Facebook.)

PolitiFact sifted through dozens of social media posts and fact-checked a few of the most popular inaccurate claims about the Wuhan coronavirus. If you see suspect claims on your social media feeds, you can send them to [email protected] and we’ll check it out.
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Source: https://www.politifact.com/facebook-fact-checks/article/2020/jan/24/fact-checking-hoaxes-and-conspiracies-about-corona/

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